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Cornet ( Bb )
The cornet is a brass instrument similar to the trumpet but distinguished from it by its conical bore, more compact shape, and mellower tone quality. Traditionally the instruments are normally made of brass, polished and then lacquered to prevent corrosion.
Trumpet ( Bb )
There are many distinct types of trumpet, having a tubing length of about 1.48 m. Early trumpets did not provide means to change the length of tubing, whereas modern instruments generally have three valves in order to change their pitch . There are eight combinations of three valves, making seven different tubing lengths, with the third valve sometimes used as an alternate fingering equivalent to the 1–2 combination.
The trumpet group ranges from the piccolo with the highest register in the brass family, to the bass trumpet, which is pitched one octave below the standard B-flat or C Trumpet.
Trombone ( tenor Bb / alt Eb / bass Bb )
Trombones have a telescoping slide mechanism that varies the length of the instrument to change the pitch. However, many modern trombone models also use a valve attachment to lower the pitch of the instrument. The tenor trombone is a non-transposing instrument pitched in B♭, an octave below the B♭ trumpet. The once common E♭ alto trombone became less widely used as improvements in technique extended the upper range of the tenor, but it is now re-surging due to its lighter sonority which is appreciated in many classical and early romantic works.
French Horn ( F / Bb )
The French Horn is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. You get a single or double French Horn. The double horn in F/B♭ is most often used by players in professional orchestras and bands. Three valves control the flow of air in the single horn, which is tuned to F or less commonly B♭. The more common double horn has a fourth, trigger valve, usually operated by the thumb, which routes the air to one set of tubing tuned to F or another tuned to B♭ which expands the horn range to over four octaves and blends with flutes or clarinets in a woodwind ensemble.
Alto Horn ( Eb )
The Alto horn is a valved brass instrument which has a predominantly conical bore like the baritone horn and flugelhorn. The tenor horn’s conical bore and deep mouthpiece produce a mellow, rounded tone which is often used as a middle voice, supporting the melodies of the trumpets, cornets or flugelhorns, and filling the gap above the lower tenor and bass instruments (the trombone, baritone horn, euphonium and tuba). Its valves are typically, though not exclusively, piston valves.
Euphonium / Baritone Horn ( Bb )
The euphonium is a medium-sized, 3 or 4-valve, often compensating, conical bore, tenor voiced brass instrument. Nearly all current models have piston valves, though some models with rotary valves do exist. It is extremely similar to a baritone horn. The difference is that the bore size of the baritone horn is typically smaller than that of the euphonium, and the baritone is a primarily cylindrical bore, whereas the euphonium is predominantly conical bore. The cylindrical baritone offers a brighter sound and the conical euphonium offers a more mellow sound.
Tuba ( Bb or BBb )
The tuba (bass) is the lowest-pitched musical instrument in the brass family. Tubas are most commonly found in B♭ ( but do get made in various other pitches F, E♭, C,). The tuba is generally constructed of brass, which is either unfinished, lacquered or with gold, nickel or silver. Unfinished brass will tarnish eventually and must be periodically polished to maintain its appearance.
Sousaphone ( BBb )
The sousaphone is a brass instrument in the same family as the more widely known Tuba. Unlike the tuba, the instrument is bent in a circle to fit around the body of the musician; it ends in a large, flaring bell that is pointed forward, projecting the sound ahead of the player. Because of the ease of carrying and the direction of sound, it is widely employed in marching bands. Sousaphones were originally made out of brass but in the mid-20th century started to be made from lighter materials like fiberglass.
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